Thursday, May 21, 2020

U.s. -led Interventions During World War II - 1586 Words

Since World War II, America has often been considered and called upon to serve as the world’s policeman. But is it a role we have performed effectively – and perhaps more importantly, is it one that we should continue to play? With opinion polls showing the American people’s overwhelming reluctance to serve a military role in foreign countries, it is time to consider whether the title of â€Å"world’s policeman† is one we should keep. Studying American interventions in the world since WWII offer some lessons and insights into both America’s desire – and ability – to police the world, and leads to the unavoidable conclusion that we are the only nation capable of preventing the all-too common atrocities, genocides and acts of aggression that destabilize continents and create untold human suffering. Of the dozens of times America has chosen to get involved in foreign countries in the last 60 years, several stand out as obvious successes, including U.S.-led interventions in Korea, Kosovo and Lebanon. In addition, there are several well-known examples of seeming failure, as well as numerous outright refusals to become involved in the affairs of another nation. Each of these – successes, failures and refusals to act – help to answer the important question of what role America should assume in coming decades. Kosovo, a region in Yugoslavia, was one example of America’s success in policing atrocities, acts of aggression and humanitarian crisis created by foreign governments. In 1997,Show MoreRelatedThe End Of The Great War1518 Words   |  7 PagesIt is the Second World War, which had the greater impact on America’s place in the world and elevated the country to have a status of Superpower. However this would not have been the case without the consequences of the First World War and America’s reluctance to drop its policy of isolationism as a result of this. James Cronin comments, â€Å"the ending of the Great War was the occasion for perhaps the grandest vision, though it’s implementation would largely fail†¦World War II offered another chanceRead MoreLumumba s Alliance With The Soviet Union1016 Words   |  5 Pagesshortly thereafter and was tortured before being sent to Katanga to death. His death sparked an international outrage with demonstrations b eing held in New York and London. (Nzongola-Ntalaja 69). On 21 November 1961, the UN took a more proactive stance during the Congo Crisis with Resolution 169. This resolution gave the UN military forces the right to use all the force necessary to maintain law and order and assist the central government of the Congo. It also vehemently rejected the Katanga government’sRead MoreUnited States Foreign Affairs Between 1914 and 19451289 Words   |  6 PagesThe evolution of the United States’ foreign relations between 1914 and 1945 can be described as a turbulent teenager coming into her own; a coming of age. In the early portions of the three decades, like most teenagers, the U.S. was solely focused on herself and on rare occasion looked outside her own door to see how the lives of her neighbors and family (Europe) were being impacted by events. There is a belief that so goes Wilson, so goes the United States foreign policy. This can likely be saidRead MoreThe World s Foreign Policy1593 Words   |  7 PagesAs the world turned over into the 20th century the threat of war could be seen throughout European countries. Tensions arising from alliances, the arming of nations, and the deep seated hatred still present from past loses were all too present. In late July of 1914 the powder keg that was Europe would erupt and the countries would be pushed into the fires of war. However, the United States of America would stand on the sideline for some time before becoming involved in an affair they had no careRead MoreThe Direct Effect of World War II Essay680 Words   |  3 Pagessaid that World War I would be the war to end all wars; unfortunately U.S. President Woodrow Wilson was wrong. In 1939 Germany invaded Poland and the global conflict, World War II, began. Fought from 1939 to 1945, World War II consisted of the Allied Powers and the Axis Powers. The Axis Powers were led by Germany, Japan, and Italy. The Allied Powers were led by the United States, Britain, France, and several other countries. In total, over sixty million people were killed, making World War II the deadliestRead MoreThe War Of World War II1638 Words   |  7 PagesWorld War II was the most widespread war in history and it directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. This war lasted from 1939 to 1945. The war pinned the Axis nations which were Germany, Italy, Japan versus the Allied nations which were led by Britain and its Commonwealth nation, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United States. The Allies were victorious in the War. It was one of the most significant periods of time in the 20th century. The war resultedRead MoreKorean War : The Cold War1598 Words   |  7 Pagesthat had already seen two appallingly destructive and costly World wars, just as the Cold War between the Soviet Union a nd the United States broke due to their ideological differences after World War II, in the midst of the Cold War was the Korean War. The Korean War began on June 25, 1950 when the North Korean People’s Army poured across the 38th parallel, a border between South and North Korea, to attack South Korea. The size of the war quickly grew as it began to involve countries like China, SovietRead MoreThe Cold War And The Soviet Union1122 Words   |  5 Pages The Cold War was a state of political hostility between the U.S and the Soviet bloc, the most powerful nations in the world. The two countries fought together as allies in World War II but toward the end of the War the two nations competing ideologies and visions of the post War prevented them from working together. The Cold War was by far the biggest threat to human existence the world has ever seen, although their was never any declaration of War between the two competing nations, the SovietRead MoreThe United States During World War II1248 Words   |  5 Pagesrepresentation of the workforce. Over time major world events have changed this unique economy. Wars have been known to have significant impacts on the economy, albeit the impact relies greatly in the government and other economic factors. Before World War II the world was undergoing a Depression caused by decreasing trade and compounding speculation. The United States were hit especially hard by the Depression and in 1939 they were still recovering. With war on the horizon, the US used isolationist policiesRead MoreU.s. Foreign Policy Policies1297 Words   |  6 Pageswill explore how the U.S. intervened in Latin America, more specifically after the World War II. Indeed, the U.S. benefitted greatly from the aftermath of the war. A subsection will be dedicated to the Pink Tide in Latin America, with a focus on the U.S. foreign policy under President GW Bush and President Obama. The overthrown Presidents of Honduras and Paraguay were part of t his movement and their outset signals a reversal in the region. The different policies set by the U.S. must be understood

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Autism And The Development Of The Mind - 1305 Words

Autism and the Development of the Mind Phenomenon/Issue Autism is a neurodevelopment disorder characterized by inabilities to understand social skills, communication difficulties, self-stimulatory behaviors and other variations in strengths and weaknesses (Scheeren et al., 2013). Children with autism are more inclined to lack emotional regulation, resorting to limited social understanding (Joseph et al., 2004). This restricts their ability to impute beliefs of others and themselves. Theory of mind is said to be absent for children with Autism ( ). The Centers for Disease Control, reports an increase of 23 percent since 2009, in autism diagnosis. One in 88 children have a being diagnosed with Autism. within the past decade the†¦show more content†¦Cognitive or developmental impairment may be assumed if theory of mind is absent (Scheeren et al., 2013). Albert Bandura (1977), the originator of social learning theory, focused his research on the process of how people learn through observation. Social Learning stems from a cognitive and behavioral theory model. This is demonstrated through the well-known Bobo Doll experiment. The experiment entailed a child observing an adult being aggressive towards the Bobo Doll (Pavlov et al., 1961). The results indicated that children imitated the observed behaviors of being aggressive towards the doll (Pavlov et al., 1961). Empiricism According to Scheeren et al., (2013), children with Autism, lack a theory of mind. Which disables them to attribute beliefs or behaviors of others. According to Joseph and Tager-Flusberg (2004), neurocognitive impairments and executive functions in theory of mind, have both been hypothesized to play a causal role in autism. Children’s theory of mind begins to develop during the preschool age, making it vital to understand beliefs, mental representation, or general representation (Carlson Moses, 2001). Future Directions Theory of mind in children with Autism concerns the ability to understand conceptions of others and their action. Research on theory of mind addresses theoretically complex questions of human action while exploring theory of mind based on social cues and is this in part of one’s neuropsychological? Link toShow MoreRelatedA Brief Look at Autism985 Words   |  4 PagesAutism is a disorder of neural development characterized by impaired social interaction and verbal and non-verbal communication (Grandgeorge, Hausberger et al., 2009). The group that I have chosen for this study are children from the ages of 2 to 12 years. I chose this topic because it has always fascinated me, as well as I have a personal experience with this topic, my 10 year old cousin has autism. At the age of 2 he was diagnosed with autism and his parents were able to prepare him for his futureRead MoreLanguage Delays And Autism Spectrum Disorder1632 Words   |  7 Pages Language Delays in Autism Spectrum Disorder Bethany Perez Colorado State University Autism spectrum disorder is caused by abnormalities in the brain. Many children that qualify under the autism spectrum disorder, often experience developmental delays in three areas of development. Socially/emotionally, as well as cognitively, children with ASD are unable to progress at a normal rate of development compared to their peers. The level of communication due to language delays can be severelyRead MoreCognitive Development Of Children With Autism1260 Words   |  6 PagesCOGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN CHILDREN WITH AUTISM Cognitive development in children with autism spectrum disorder is vastly complex in its entirety. During development, the most critical period is within the first 6 years of life; at the age of 7, our brain is nearly developed to the average adult size. During this time, myelination, synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning are occurring and contribute significantly to the development of the brain. If disruption occurs in brain development, it is possibleRead MoreHow Do Children Develop?1195 Words   |  5 Pagesdevelop? Development in children is a fragile process with many different influences. Most children develop normally without any issues, however 1 in 60 children suffer from Autism Spectrum Disorder throughout their lives (â€Å"Facts About Autism† n.d.). In fact the number of children who suffer from the Autistic Spectrum Disorder has grown over the last decade (â€Å"Facts About Autism† n.d.). Autism is a brain disorder that usually shows up in childhood and carries on throughout adulthood. Autism makes itRead MoreTheory of Mind and Ex ecutive Function 858 Words   |  3 PagesTheory of Mind and the Executive Function Theory of mind (ToM) is â€Å"the specific ability to attribute mental states to oneself and to others† (Pellicano, 2007, p. 974). Attributing mental states essentially allows one to read another’s body language and therefore predicts their behavior. This is important in the socialization of a child, something that an autistic child struggles with. Baron-Cohen et al. (2000) believe the term ToM is synonymous with social intelligence. The executive function (EF)Read MoreAsd Essay1059 Words   |  5 PagesEvery two years, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has become more pronounced. This is due to the modern world being more familiarized with ASD, and the extensive research being conducted into it. However, with the familiarization of ASD, parents and educators have become more concerned with the future of their children. Parents, as well as many others, have come to believe that ASD has sparked a negative impact on individuals such as their success. However, children who h ave ASD do not have a lowerRead MoreSigmund Freuds Theory Of Psychoosexual Development1221 Words   |  5 Pagesare to explain and understand change, growth and consistency throughout the life span. The science of human developmental psychology. The science of human development pursues to develop an understanding of how and why all kinds of people, everywhere change or remain the same over time. Sigmund Freuds (1856-1936) theory of psychosexual development describes how a personals personality develops of the course of their childhood. This is a well-known theory in psychology however it has always been quiteRead MoreThe Characteristics Of Autism Spectrum Disorders ( Asd )949 Words   |  4 Pages 1. What are the characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)? As described in the textbook, there is a broad range of characteristics associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). One of the first characteristics noted with ASD is language deficits, or using language in â€Å"odd† ways. As stated in the textbook, â€Å"Children with classic autism may be nonverbal. Alternatively, they may have significant language difficulties, so that their language may consist primarily of echolalia or delayedRead MoreAutism Spectrum Disorder And Autism1492 Words   |  6 Pageslots of attention. What used to be known as Autism was later renamed in the DSM to Autism Spectrum Disorder meaning, a neurodevelopmental disorder rather than a pervasive developmental disorder (Gargiulo, 2015). Autism spectrum disorder is a developmental disorder characterized by abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a restricted repertoire of activity and interests (Gargiulo, 2015). The IDEA describes autism as developmental dis ability that affects all areasRead MoreHow Children With Autism? Essay1308 Words   |  6 PagesHow Children with Autism can be Supported in Education? Autism affects the individuals’ social interactions and the social construction of the world (National Autistic society, 2015). Children with Autism follow a different developmental pattern from other children and develop at the different rate. It could be understood as a social/psychological disability. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) – is a neurological condition that affects the way a person experiences and interacts with the world. Children

The Evil Sides of Esteban Trueba †A commentary on Allendes The House of Spirits pages 65-67 Free Essays

n this particular passage from pages 65-67 of Isabela Allendes book The House of Spirits, Allende presents Esteban Truebas dark sides of his character. She does this by showing the reader what Trueba did but she also presents her views on the society that he lives in, Chile, the early 1900’s. In this passage, the author tries to reveal how Esteban Trueba is evil in his actions towards other people. We will write a custom essay sample on The Evil Sides of Esteban Trueba – A commentary on Allendes The House of Spirits pages 65-67 or any similar topic only for you Order Now Allende speaks about Trueba as a representative of the whole wealthy male society in that time. She tries to emphasize how the thoughts of the people in that time evolved around politics, family matters and society. In the first part of the passage Allende talks about how the protagonist (Trueba) took care of his family. He did actually support his family financially but, the author emphasizes that he didn’t bother too see them and using a flashback she mentions his explanation on why he couldn’t visit his dying mother, â€Å"He was so busy in the fields, (†¦ ) that he had no time to waste at the bedside of an invalid†(65). Saying that about his own mother doesn’t really make the reader feel sympathy for Trueba. Allende shows Trueba’s dark sides by writing about his rapes and that he didn’t confess to anyone about that the many children are his, his children. Allende comments on this by using a very negative tone, â€Å"It was better to think that they were not†(66). This wasn’t all that the author mentioned about Trueba’s sins concerning his rapes, she further mentions how Trueba threw the poor women out, †he would send her flying with his wip†(66). The author shows that Trueba only respected the people in his own class, by using a euphemism, she mentions Truebas opinion that if everyone would be born with the same rights then, â€Å"everybody would go to hell and civilization would be thrown back to the Stone Age†(66). Allende shows Truebas quest to marry a women of high status, â€Å"when he was ready to have children he would find a women of his own class†(66). This actually shows that Trueba would do everything to achieve his goal, to become rich, wealthy and highly ranked in the society, he would even marry a woman just because of her high status in the society and big wealth. Both these quotes show also how Allende presents Trueba full of disgust towards poorer people although he had belonged to the lower part of society for a big part of his life. Allende tries to show the reader how evil and selfish Trueba is by mentioning his comments on Niveas fight for woman rights, â€Å"That woman is sick in the head†. To further get Trueba viewed as a evil man, Allende shows Trueba’s bad sides of his character by presenting his sarcastic views on women’s rights, â€Å"If women don’t know that two and two are four, how are they going to be able to handle a scalpel? (67). This quote shows that Trueba doesn’t joke when he puts the woman down, he just is a man with no respect or imagination to the woman suffering during that time. The author uses a hyperbole when she mentions Truebas exaggeration on women’s pleads, â€Å"At the rate they’re going, the next thing you know they’ll be asking to be deputies, judges-even President of the Republic! â€Å"(67). She clearly shows how Trueba is pessimistic to any changes in society and intolerant towards woman. By making comments like, â€Å"It would go against the nature†(67), Allende shows Trueba’s hubris which will lead him to a misery later on in the book. She also shows how one-way minded Trueba is by saying that and the reader can clearly see that Allende tries to present Trueba as intolerant as possible. She clearly marks the point that Trueba isn’t a happy man, he is rotten from inside and that people with the kind of view on society similar to Trueba’s are bad. Allende shows that Trueba isn’t a happy man, he does everything to achieve his economical goal, but that he never finds peace in his soul. In this passage, Allende really shows us Trueba’s neagaitve views on the society. While the author shows all these dark sides of Trueba’s character, she also makes one thing relevant, Trueba’s harsh involvement in politics later in his life. She foreshadows this by using the quote, â€Å"What these cases really need is a strong hand†(67). One might wonder how a one-way-minded man like Esteban Trueba is going join the ruling part of society and still be able to stay in power? That does for sure not work in a â€Å"democratic country†. It’s up to Trueba to be able to controll his evil sides and bad habits and still live a successful life, both politically and privately. In this passage Allende presented Trueba as not only an evil man but also as an intolerant, ignorant and selfish character. She did this by talking a lot about his bad relations with his family, his many rapes and also his narrow-minded views on the society involving woman rights. The author also expresses Trueba not only in his character but as an representative of the whole upper-class male society of that times. How to cite The Evil Sides of Esteban Trueba – A commentary on Allendes The House of Spirits pages 65-67, Papers

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Nuclear Diplomatic Relations

Introduction Diplomacy refers to the act of conducting negotiations between parties or nations through professional interactions. Diplomatic relations covers subjects in relation to matters that include business, war, environment and human rights among others.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Nuclear Diplomatic Relations specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More With emergence of globalization and subsequent identification of particular issues as of global concern, international effort has been necessitated in even matters that occur within countries. Such has been the case of the Japanese nuclear crisis which has drawn international concern. This paper seeks to discuss the possible implications of the Japanese nuclear crisis to the future of nuclear power in Asia. The paper will look into international regulations over nuclear power, the Japanese crisis, reactions into the crisis and the implications that the crisis could have on future nuclear power in Asia. The nuclear technology Developments in nuclear energy started in the 1930s with discovery of nuclear fission and a subsequent testing in the year 1939 in Germany. The situation that was presented by the threat and the final occurrence of the Second World War then facilitated research into the nuclear field which led to the development of nuclear weapons. Following the impacts of the application of nuclear weapons during the world war, efforts were made to control the acquisition and use of nuclear facilities. The regulations however gave room for restricted and monitored use of such technology for peaceful purposes. The United States for example enacted laws for peaceful use of nuclear energy in the year 1946. Countries such as the Soviet Union, France and United Kingdom then later established plants for use of nuclear energy (ICJT, 2001). Regulatory measures over nuclear technology Following the adverse effects of nuclear weapons during the Se cond World War, initiatives were made for the control and even the spread of nuclear technology around the globe. A treaty, nuclear non proliferation treaty, was for example established for international regulation of the technology.Advertising Looking for essay on international relations? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Under the treaty, transfer or acquisition of nuclear weapons by any country was restricted with only regulated and supervised transfer of the technology form peaceful use such as in the production of energy (FAS, n.d.). The establishment of â€Å"international atomic energy agency† as a subsidiary to the non proliferation treaty was then undertaken to ensure compliance to the treaty with the motive of ensuring peace (United Nations, 2002). The agency’s role is stipulated to include promotion of interaction between countries with respect to peaceful application of the technology and at the same ti me prevent proliferation of nuclear weapons (United Nations, 2002). Following the high risk factors that have been associated with the nuclear technology, there has been concern in the international community with calls that any country that involves in the application of nuclear technology, even for energy purposes, must ensure safety measures with respect to the environment. The international atomic energy agency for instance provides that any party that establishes a nuclear plant must submit commitments to ensuring â€Å"effective levels of safety, security, and safeguards† (Apikyan Diamond D., 2009, p. 26). This is due to the associated risks that are associated to the nuclear technology that is a threat not only to a subject nation, but also to its entire neighborhood (Apikyan Diamond, 2009). The nuclear crisis in Japan The nuclear problem that was realized in Japan in the year 2011 was as a result of a continuous leak that was realized in one of the country’s nuclear energy plants.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Nuclear Diplomatic Relations specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The leak that was caused by an earthquake led to devastating effects with more that fourteen thousand people left dead and many others with side effects of nuclear radiations. The radiations into the atmosphere and the sea also threatened safety across the Japanese boarders (BBC, 2011). Effects of the crisis on the future of nuclear power in Asia The effects of the Japanese nuclear power plant leak and its subsequent effects sent thrills of fears the whole world. In India for example, where nuclear energy has been an on going development, calls have been made for the abolition of the expansion and even use of nuclear energy on the grounds of security threats as was realized in Japan (Brewster, 2011). The leaked emission from the Japanese plant also drew mixed reactions from representatives in the United Nations climate talks. The crisis triggered calls for more regulations over use of nuclear technology with respect to environmental safety. These calls have possible implications of increased global regulations of use of nuclear energy which, if instituted, will equally affect the future establishments of nuclear sites in Asia as well as around the world (Fogarty, 2011). Conclusion The dangers that are associated with leaks from nuclear energy plants as was evidenced in the Japanese crisis has possible impacts of increased regulations by international bodies and pressure from environmental movements that might slow down developments of nuclear power applications in Asia as well as globally. References Apikyan, S. Diamond, D. (2009). Nuclear Power and Energy Security. Netherlands: Springer. BBC. (2011). Japan nuclear crisis over in nine months. Web.Advertising Looking for essay on international relations? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Brewster, D. (2011). Political fallout from Japanese nuclear crisis hits India. Web. FAS.  Ã‚  Treaty on the non proliferation of nuclear weapons. Web. Fogarty, D. (2011). Japan nuclear crisis to impact UN climate talks- EU. Web. ICJT. (2001). The history of nuclear technology. Web. United Nations. (2002). UN Disarmament. Web. This essay on Nuclear Diplomatic Relations was written and submitted by user Zackary Lara to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

General Motors Acting Strategically

General Motors Acting Strategically History and Growth of GM General Motors was founded at the beginning of the twentieth century and initially they were the manufacturer of Buick- a motorcar with an internal combustion of engine and horse-driven vehicles. They gradually developed more auto cars and in 1916, Alfred P. Sloan who led the company to an unprecedented growth over the years owned it. GM grew up into a huge global corporation despite all the tribulations it went through.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on General Motors: Acting Strategically specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As GM is a gigantic conglomerate, it has several branches. GM has four organs for administration and reporting while GM North America (GMNA) had the largest sales. The GM maintained an overall percentage of 26 % to 28 % of all industries in this region. However, its profits fell in 2005, which was due to lesser quantity of products and an unfavorable product mix and it was t he result of plant closures, changes in product liability and other major impacts on net income. In Europe, GM (GME) faced continuous losses amounting to US$ 1.0 bn by 2004 due to continued negative price pressures and unfavorable exchange rates. GM in Asia Pacific (GMAP) had good sales, here with a very good position in China. India and Thailand also yielded good earnings. GMAP showed very high net margin with about 10% in 2003 2004. GM in Latin America, Africa, and the Mid-east (GMLAAM) was unpredictable with losses in 2002 2003, mounting to profits in 2004. The net margin was higher in 2002, which fell to 0.4 % in 2003, which increased to 0.9% in 2004. The GMAC was the financial subsidiary of GM, initially introduced to finance GM operations. This section had continuous profits and gradually it grew up into a global financial company, offering mortgages and insurances. The total revenues from the financing insurance operations showed a gradual increase, which was 31000 million in 2004 and a net income of 2800 million in both 2003 2004 but however, there were also some losses in some other sectors. The shares of GM and other American companies declined from 1990 to 2004, whereas shares of foreign companies rose and these led to restructuring. There was high competition and GM faced new challenges. Strengths and Weaknesses of GM The internal strengths of GM are market share, sales volume, performance of subsidiaries, labor force, financial strength, restructuring process and long experience, brand awareness in the US market, application of technology, and many other features. On the other hand, the external threats are Reduction of market share in the US market from 1990 to 2004, provision of North American Free Tread Agreement, operating expenses, excessive investment, and model of the cars, political factors, strategic decision, and stock performance.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your fi rst paper with 15% OFF Learn More Strengths: Market Share: According to the annual report 2010 of GM, it has business operation in more than 157 countries and still has a significant share in global market. In addition, its current market position in North America zone is outstanding in terms of market share and volume of sales; Sales Volume: Wall Street Journal forecasted that General Motor is in the highest position considering the number of car sales because it has been sold 232,538 cars in the fiscal year 2010/11 while Ford Motor Company sold only 189,284 cars and Toyota Motor Sales USA Inc. sold 159,540 cars in this zone (WSJ, 2011). However, the following figure demonstrates the position of car manufactures in terms of car sales Figure 1: Position of GM in the US market Source: WSJ (2011) Performance of Subsidiaries: It has many regional subsidiaries like GM Daewoo Auto Technology, Shanghai General Motors, SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile Co and many others subs idiaries those performance help to increase profit in consolidated financial statements. Labor force: GM has more than 209,000 efficient employees to operate the business in adverse economic condition and save the company from such position. However, most of the employees are higher educated in particular subject and their own field and they have innovative new idea to offer better services for the customers; Internal control: the management team follow local rules and regulations where it operates and it has own controlling system. However, it follows listing rules and other provisions of Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 to control the business and avoid mismanagement and internal conflicts; Financial strength: GM Corporation is one of main player in the automobile industry, which has financial capabilities to compete with other car manufactures in national and international market by implementing its new business strategies in the present market place. According to the annual report 201 0 of GM, its present key financial variables are Key variables 2010 ($ million) 2009 ($ million) 2008 ($ million) 2007 ($ million) 2006 ($ million) Total Sales Revenue 135592 57474 148979 179984 204467 Net income (loss) 6503 (3786) 109003 (31051) (38136) Total Assets 138898 136295 91039 148846 185995 Total GM Company equity (d) 37159 21957 (85076) (35152 ) (4,076 ) Diluted earnings (loss) per share: $ 2.89 $(3.58) $(53.47) $(76.16) $(4.39) Table 1: Financial information of GM Source: self generated from of GM (2010, p.47) Restructuring process: This company was become bankrupt due to the adverse impact of global financial crisis but it was successfully restructured by taking direct help from the government; Experience: As the company established in 1908, it has long experience to operate global market with strong brand image. Weaknesses: Besides strong points, GM has many weak issues like Advertising We will write a custom report sample on General Moto rs: Acting Strategically specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Decrease Market Share in the US market: From 1990 to 2004, GM lost a significant percentage of the US market share, such as, its market share fell about 35.5% to 27.3% while Toyota and Hondas market share climbed by 18.3% to 26.2% in this zone; Figure 2: US Market share of Automobiles Source: General Motors (2010, p.7) NAFTA: the competitors of international market particularly Toyota and Nissan have easily entered in the North American zone by taking facilities of NAFTA[1] and captured large market share; Operating expenses: the total costs and expenses of GM are increasing each year, for instance, this expanses were $130508 million in 2010, $62402 in 2009 and $170209 million in 2008, which shows gradual increase of this costs; Excessive Investment: The main requirement of huge investment, fixed costs, excessive cost for training and development of staff and capitalization are el igible to put greater pressure on any car manufacturer regarding GM. Those variables also create severe problems of over capacity by recession and lower sales revenue or under capacity for upturn; Model of the cars: Most of the car manufacturing companies change the model of the car frequently, but GM is not concentrate on this issue more seriously. Political factors: GM’s net selling market in the USA has been adversely affected since 1990 due to fluctuate economical and political situations. For this circumstance, the company is shifting its selling vision towards rising automotive car market of China, which offers lower profit margin than general projection. Strategic decision: Toyota, Honda and Nissan have taken measures to save the company from unusual events, for instance, these companies have introduced environmental friendly sport utility vehicles (SUVs) to increase profit margin; Stock Performance: the performance of GM in Stock market is not satisfactory as this sha re price is decreasing day-by-day especially its share price decreased dramatically in April 2011 and the subsequent figure shows the position of GM in Stock market. Figure 3: Basic chart of GM Source: Yahoo Finance (2011) The External Environment of GM Hitt, Ireland, Hoskisson (2001) stated that the external environment of the company is depend on political, economical, social, and technological factors; therefore, this report will consider PEST analysis of GM-Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Political factors: General Motors (2010, p.29) reported that political unsteadiness in the Middle East and African countries could weaken the demand of cars and it must effect on the integrate market share of GM and annual financial performance. On the other hand, foreign direct investment policy in China, taxation policy of local and foreign countries, hostile attitude of the government of Nigeria and Venezuela, Israel- Palestine clash, and Iranian political environment influence the company both positively and negatively to operate the business. Economic factors: According to the report of Reuters (2011), GM experienced economic hardship due to the influence of bankruptcy in the fiscal year 2008 and 2009, but it enjoyed exceptional success in the year 2010, for instance, net income of GM was $6503 million, though the share price is decreasing at this moment (Reuters, 2011). However, Conklin (2005) projected $4.0 billion operating lose in 2005 due to high maintenance costs such as healthcare costs were $5.60 billion, which extremely higher than competitors’ expenses. However, Reuters (2011), forecasted that government provided fund from bailout bill to help the company to recover from recessionary impact, and the company started to gain its confidence and its share price would be in stable position in next three years. Figure 4: Basic Chart of General Motors for 2009 to 2013 Source: Online Journal Reuters (2011) Socio- cultural factors: GM provides effort to build up efficiency level of the employees in order to offer quality products and services to the customers. As employees are the key assets of the company, GM provide high remuneration to them as they are responsible for research and design, increase quality of the products and improve sales rate; so, GM increases annual pension and healthcare funds for the staff as more than 679000 families depend on this funds (Ivey Management Services, 2005). Technological factors: The research team of GM i s working hard to reduce petroleum consumption by introducing hybrid and electric technologies as Toyota and Honda have already captured a significant market share by developing environmental friendly products. At the same time, technological factors play vital role to introduce the vehicles with alternative fuels, and reduce oil and water consumption or launch next- generation hybrid power technology for gaining efficiency and ensure safety issues. Porter’s five forces model analysis of GM In order to discuss the competitive environment of GM, this report will focus on Porter’s five forces model – Figure 5:  Ã‚  Porter’s five forces model of competition for GM Source- Self generated form analysis Threats from new entrants: According to the annual report of GM Corporation, the automobile companies had suffered intense competition in the local and international market for financial downturns, unstable fuel prices, and reduction of the employment rate . In addition, it is important to have strong financial condition with advance technological supports in order to enter this industry as new player. As a result, it is hard for the new companies to occupy the market share of General Motors but there is huge risk of competitive stress from newer domestic automakers of China and India because these new manufacturers are popular to the middle class target groups. At the same time, large automobiles like Toyota, Honda or other companies’ subsidiaries can captured the market of GM as its market share in the US market is decreasing; Bargaining power of suppliers: As per the annual report 2010 of General Motors, the main suppliers are raw materials suppliers, which supply steel, aluminum, oil, rubber, motor engine, resins, color, simple parts, engine, glass, copper, lead, systems, components, and other body parts of cars etc. Nevertheless, the bargaining power of these suppliers differs from nation to nation and the availability of the suppliers of particular products, such as, General Motors always clear the payment second month of the delivery due to avoid any misunderstanding in the supply chain management system. Bargaining power of buyers: Prior to the global financial meltdown, buyers were comparatively less influential factors to the automobiles industry because most of the customers of GM had concerned on quality rather than price of the products though the fact of this statement differed from one market place to another place. However, the bargaining power of buyers is now high because of the current pressure of global financial downturn, as the customers of new cars now like to purchase cars at lower price. In addition, this power of buyers helped the competitors of GM to increase their sales profit as most of the competitors offer lower price of the cars; Threats of substitute products: Besides competition with direct competitors, General Motors also suffered hard competition from some other substit ute transportation system. As the demand of public transports like bus, railways system, and trams have provided huge facilities, the people take the advantage of public transport system in this economic condition; Rivalry among existing firms: This Company has to compete with numerous direct and indirect auto manufacturers at both home and abroad, for instance, the key competitors of this company are Honda, Ford motors, Chrysler, Nissan, Mitsubishi, Land Rover, Toyota, BMW, etc. However, the rivalry among existing firms is extremely high as all companies change their strategies to expand its market share; therefore, market share in the US car and truck market of GM fell about 22.1% to 18.8% from 2008 to 2010 only for the intense competition. However, the following figure compares the position of GM with other direct competitors – Figure 6: Direct Competitor Comparison Source: Yahoo Finance (2011) The external threats and opportunities of GM Opportunities: Growth: This com pany has capability to perform strongly in existing market and enter new market with exclusive offer particularly EU market is potential for the company; Joint venture: Joint venture with local companies or large multinational companies can bring success for the company Hybrid cars: GM has scope to develop its hybrid technology, new vehicle styles and models for the target customers; International strategy: It should try to apply international strategy to enter highly populated regions enlisting India, China, and Russia to generate long- run return. Threats: Recessionary Impact: It had been acted as the most vulnerable and dangerous factor of the General Motor company in terms of falling its certified dealership concerning 475 outlets among which 401 were linked with GMNA. In addition, it also generated stiff credit industry, disorder in the mortgage sector and fluctuated fuel rate for diminishing customer loyalty; Competition: Intense competition among the market players is one of the key threats for the company while competitors rapidly occupied large market share. Legal Litigation: Recently, legal litigation costs had increased as the company is responsible for environmental issues, employees and customer safety concerns, product quality, customers’ safety and other government policies; Fuel price: The volatility of fuel price decrease the demand of GM cars as the customer would like to purchase cars those require consumption rate of fuel is very low. However, the marketer of GM has already addressed this issue and this company is going to launch 19 FlexFuel vehicles in FY2011 with intent to capture 40 percent its total sales revenue; Compensation: Executive compensation committee has established considering the provisions of the ARRA[2] 2009 to maintain the remuneration system; however, it has many high-compensated employees, which become threat for the company at moment of financial crisis. Strategy of GM At around 2005, GM had been experiencin g high losses. GM was also compelled to provide payment for retired employees and pensions. In addition, there was intense competition. Therefore, GM would have to take steps in order to overcome these difficulties. The earlier principles were best products, consumer focus, and unity, accept stretch targets and working rapidly. GM would now have to change its working strategies. Among the US companies, which were the competitors of GM were The Big Three companies, Ford, Daimler-Chrysler and GM, which copied each others decisions involving models and prices which threatened continued profitability. On the other hand, foreign companies introduced newer models of cheaper improved products and they employed younger people paid less salary to them. The US companies strived to retain seniority distinctions, which hindered the innovation of new technologies. Many first time buyers preferred used cars but the older products of US Companies had poor performance, which created a bad impressi on in their minds. Consumers sometimes say that due to poor quality the US companies offered lesser prices. Repeated price and interest concessions led to customers waiting for the next sale. Moreover, such programs served to decrease prices of used and new vehicles and consumers preferred cars that might have constant resale value. Thus, the US companies closed some of their plants. The US companies decreased prices from suppliers and enhanced the prices to the dealers, which led to reduced profits. The complexity and size of the huge companies like GM delayed changes in technological and corporate cultures. Thus, the goals of GM were to increase shares by acting strategically. It would also have to introduce strategies to impress its customers. Thus, the company planned to undertake different corporate strategies. GM’S Saturn Strategy This project was that GM initiated a new branch in a new area with new employees. The Saturn vehicle was made especially different by providi ng it a plastic dent-free body. The sellers had fixed listed prices, for creating confidence to the customers of the company. This produced high consumer satisfaction but the profits could not meet its expectations. The Saturn Strategy required distinctive features and new employees. This was expensive so GM decided to make Saturn just another simple brand, with engineering and marketing being shifted to GM’s centralized operations. GM’s Strategy of Alliances GM created alliances in several countries for expanding their business. They had an equity position with the Swedish manufacturer Saab, and also created joint venture with the Russian company for building SUVs for Russia. They had an alliance with Suzuki of Japan for producing engines for Suzuki vehicles. They also had remarkable alliance with Fiat, Daewoo and SAIC. GM’s Fiat Strategy GM had alliance with Fiat hoping to increase sales in Europe. Fiat hoped to increase sales of its luxury cars in the US. GM and Fiat reduced costs by sharing engines and platforms. They exchanged technologies. They also exchanged shares in each others companies. However, this alliance was disastrous. Fiat had decreasing sales and lesser profits. GM and Fiat worked individually and some Fiat shareholders argued GM was obliged to purchase the remaining 80% of Fiat. Finally, GM made an out-of-court settlement of $2 billion. GM’s China Strategy GM had a 50 per cent share with a Chinese auto manufacturer, SAIC. They had numerous competitors with about 200 carmakers, retaining a 40 percent market share. In addition, the government had interventionist policies, such as the foreign ownership of assembly factories should be limited to 50 per cent. However, intellectual property was not protected resulting in models being copied and hence, threatening a decrease in prices. Moreover, GM faced risks that the joint venture might be dissolved or that the SAIC and others may turn into their global competitors; t herefore, there were many challenges. GM’s Daewoo Strategy GM made an alliance for buying Daewoo assets forming GMDAT. This led GM to gain access to the market in Korea and also to provide low-cost cars for GM dealers worldwide. Initially, GM had a 33 per cent market share, which fell to 9.5 percent in 2004 and the situation was becoming tougher. GM’S â€Å"Non-Market† Strategies Governments made policies, which influenced automakers strategies. In some places, such as Canada, government provided free health care for the people thus decreasing the production costs and influencing plant location decisions. For years, governments considered the automotive industry as a job creator, involving assembly operations and also dealers and suppliers. Therefore, the government provided significant financial assistance by which new plants or R D facilities could be introduced. Hence, each automaker started requesting for financial assistance. GM’s Healthcare and Pen sion Strategies GM had numerous employees and thousands of families relied on it for pension funds. In 2005, the cost of healthcare amounted to $5.6 billion and GM was considering to reducing these huge healthcare obligations. In 2005, GM thought to reduce benefits for retired UAW workers, but the UAW argued that this would be a breach of their contract. The union’s view was that before the union members chose to agree to reduce rises in their salaries expecting higher pension and health promises; thus, GM was legally and morally bound to the customer. GM’S Environmental Strategy: The governments were attempting to reduce gasoline consumption and emissions by increasing mileage for which they introduced regulations. Under the new regulations, sales were easier for Honda and Toyota than GM, which was compelled to sell smaller trucks at lower profit margins. Automakers were thinking to alter the engines for enhancing gasoline mileage by using batteries or other electrica l sources. GM introduced models, which relied on lead acid batteries and which it required charging. GM was also working for developing a six-cylinder diesel engine. Toyota and BMW was also working on new types of engines. GM and other automakers also considered fuel cells for producing electricity. In fact, some countries signed the Kyoto Protocol, for decreasing carbon dioxide emissions while the US and some countries did not sign. However, GM voluntarily took measures to reduce carbon dioxide emissions monitoring its energy use and carbon dioxide emission launched a website. Business Level Strategy of GM The GM’s market share in the US fell from 35.5 per cent to 27.3 per cent. The global share of GM was 15 per cent in 2002, which was approximately 14.5 per cent in the following yrs. Thus, the consolidated net income rose by about 1 million from 2002 to 2004. The net margin from continuing operations was above 1 per cent throughout the 3 yrs. An analysis of the financial da ta of global automakers would reveal the global position of GM. GM had the highest number of sales worldwide in 2004, but this does not mean an entire profit since the operating profit margin was -0.2% and the return on equity was -4.4%. This indicates that the company is going through losses. On the other hand, Nissan and BMW had a high profit margin of about 9%, which means that the company is having high profits. Nissan had a return on equity of 20% also indicates the high profitability of the company. The Stock Change of GM was -38.6% whereas that of Nissan was about 228%. Hence, in comparison it appears that the position of GM is poor in the market. In 2005, the CEO of GM intended to introduce new objectives. Following this, GM offered substantial discounts to attract consumers and lessen inventories. The CEO declared that the number of employees would be reduced to 25000., the CEO introduced a new strategy which included a) spending more on new vehicles, b)explaining the funct ions of each of GM’s eight brands; c) focusing more on lowering costs and improving quality; d) searching for ways to lessen the enormous healthcare costs. GM planned to reduce healthcare costs in US. Nevertheless, this was not such a pressing matter for Canada due to differences in publicly funded healthcare systems. The CEO decided to be in charge of the GMNA. He made internal changes within the company by assigning the former chairman of the NA division and GMNA President to global product development and manufacturing and labor. The intention was to reinforce GM’s global focus. The CEO also expressed a new strategy related to pricing, marketing and models of vehicles and said that if each product could be produced with more special features for attracting consumers it would be better. For positioning the models uniquely so that customers can easily understand GM brought new strategies. Among the eight brands, Chevrolet and Cadillac would remain in the market and so me models might be eliminated for lessening duplication. GM thought to use sticker prices, which would be much close to the original prices paid by customers to allow customers to compare prices of GM’S products with products of other companies. GM also started new advertisements focusing the theme â€Å"Only GM† emphasizing safety features and in-vehicle communications service and electronic stability control and some other features. The major problem faced by the company: According to the case of Conklin (2005), the major problems faced by the company are- Competition from Japanese automobiles: The foreign automakers particularly Japanese carmakers offer lower price for their new model quality cars those are concentrate on the environment friendly with low fuel consumption to the customer. Besides trucks and small car markets, these companies also penetrated the market of luxury vehicles with latest technology and these companies develop global networks to sales thei r products. However, GM is in number one position in terms of car sales but it is facing serious problem to sustain as a market leader in automotive industry from last three decades. Competitors’ products: the competitors especially Toyota and Honda are manufacturing quality products and building strong brand image, which becomes one of most significant problems for GM. Internal controlling system: the present management team is in under pressure due to the provision of previous rules as these rules create impeding to apply new technology and bring organizational change at the time of crisis. Resale value: According to the report of Ivey Management Services, the government, rental service providers and many companies offer second hand cars at lower price; therefore, many potential customers purchase second hand cars instead of first hand cars of GM. Customers’ respond: Most of the customers of GM stated that the value of this brand is higher than any other foreign comp any’s car and the quality also lower in terms of the price of the GM brand. Therefore, the customers would like to purchase competitors model as they get new car at lower price with similar or better features, which influence the market to reduce integrate sales of the company. Restructuring process: In 2004, Wagoner in annual report of the company stated that GM should restructure its strategies in order to gain competitive advantages in future and it was a difficult task for the top management, as they had to take many decision going beyond existing culture of the company. For instance, it had twenty-seven different purchasing organizations but it is now performing as a single organization for global operation The â€Å"Push† industry effect: Push strategy indicates that â€Å"pushing† the production through distribution channels to final consumers where the manufacturer directs all the marketing actions toward channel members for reminding them to carry out t he production and to endorse those to final customers; however, GM followed these strategy and automatically reduced the market share. The possible solutions/ alternatives for solving the problem: Explanation of Scale: Each criterion was evaluated and given a score between 1 and 5, with 1 being very unfavorable and 5 being highly favorable Alternative 1: Develop new product line Annual report of GM stated that this company has focused on creating a strong business by introducing innovative products with excellent features; consequently, GM has already launched few models those can run by using alternative fuels consumption system (such as bio-diesel and ethanol blends) with other eco-friendly technologies (GM, 2010, p.12). The purpose of this strategy is to increase the market share in the US market as the foreign companies penetrated the US market with these product lines; for example, Toyota became the market leader in the Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles while Honda is the ma jor competitor of Toyota. However, GM has already changed its objective related with the cost effective fuels issues and it has introduced 19 Flexmation considering these facts and added new features to operate with bio-fuels including E85 ethanol by the fiscal year 2012. At the same time, GM (13) reported that new model hybrid electric vehicles would play vital role to change customer behaviour and increase sales revenue from the US and European car market; therefore, it would like to introduce Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technology, OnStar and Other Technologies in their new products. Decision Criteria for Strategic Alternatives Evaluation Criteria Evaluation Criteria Strategy 1 Builds brand awareness GM is already market leader in the US market in terms of car sales, but Toyota leads the hybrid car market; so, strategy 1 would need to implement to build brand awareness within short time in this sector 4 Aligns with vision This strategy complied with the vision of the company 4 Exploits core competency It has addressed areas that can add value for GM automobile and further develop the world class experience 3 Competition As the car market is too competitive, this strategy would create new dimension to compete with competitors 4 Differentiates and helps to create unique experience The customers have experienced of the eco friendly models. Therefore, it will not help the company to create unique experience 3 Creating loyal customer base As Toyota and Honda offer similar products at lower price, then it would be difficult to create loyal customer base 3 Financial risk Implementation of this strategy may create problem due to lack customer demand, which will increase financial challenges 3 Short and long term Growth rate It would be possible to expand market and sustain for long time in some business zone 3 Think customer first It is not meet the criteria of think customer first 3 Degree of Flexibility It would be possible to develop market share in the US and other European countries 4 Total / 50 34 Alternative 2: Restructuring Pricing Strategy The marketer of GM should research on the market trends, external business environment, the effect of global financial crisis, demand, market competition and buyer behavior in order to restructuring its pricing strategy. However, GM has long experience to operate business in national and international market as a major player but it lost its glorious market position due to higher competition and price war from Japanese companies. As a result, restructuring pricing strategy is one of the most essential criteria to sustain in competitive market while all competitors setting price considering customers’ purchasing power. Decision Criteria for Strategic Alternatives Evaluation Criteria Evaluation Criteria Strategy 2 Builds brand awareness Japanese car manufacturing companies developed their brand image by using this strategy 4 Aligns with vision In 2009, GM’ s sales have been lowered by 30% than 2008 and the company decided to fire 3800 personnel in order to overcome the recessionary impact. In this circumstances, the position of the company can be improved by following this pricing strategy 4 Exploits core competency GM would need a longer period of time to regain its glorious position in terms of more vehicle sales if it not consider this strategy 4 Competition As Japanese competitors ask lower price to capture the market, GM should hit the market by restructuring their pricing policy 5 Differentiates and helps to create unique experience Most of the case value creation depends on geographic factors include target region or country and population density 3 Creating loyal customer base Due to ongoing instability of oil prices over 2008, a lower demand situation has been created for some of the GM’s higher margin cars involving full- size sport utility vehicles. Therefore, restructuring pricing strategy is the only one so lution to create large customer base; 5 Financial risk 4 Short and log term Growth rate In 2009, the overall conditions threatening the company to the extent that it would not sustain for long without a bailout from the US government. Consequently, alternative 4 must help the company to operate in near future with highest market share 4 Think customer first This strategy meet the criteria of Think customer first 4 Degree of Flexibility Cost Leadership is the effective strategy for future sustainability 5 Total / 50 42 Alternative 3: Joint Venture and Acquisition strategy The company can achieved competitive advantages by joint venturing with large automobiles to share their resource and capabilities to expand the business in outside of the US market. Decision Criteria for Strategic Alternatives Evaluation Criteria Evaluation Criteria Strategy 3 Builds brand awareness In some case, this would effective strategy to increases Brand recognition 4 Aligns with visi on It is more likely to result in a successful outcomes as it creates a customer centric culture, making their accessibility and needs to most important thing 4 Exploits core competency It has identified areas that can add value for the company 4 Competition Reduce completion between two contacting parties 5 Differentiates and helps to create unique experience Differentiate the mountain to suit target group needs, each mountain in unique within itself ensuring that the experience is unique and entwined in the mountains culture 3 Creating loyal customer base Increased infrastructure and services increases capacity for more customers, ensuring the experience to create loyal customer base 4 Financial risk In case of joint venture, it has minimal start up costs, and few overhead. However, in case of acquisition, it requires a large financial investment both with the initial purchase and the development of infrastructure expenses 3 Short and log term Growth rate It offers lar ge potential growth in the long-term in some place 3 Think customer first This strategy has designed with think the company first 2 Degree of Flexibility It limits its adaptability 3 Total / 50 39 Alternative 4: Combination of Alternative Strategy 1 and Strategy 2 Decision Criteria for Strategic Alternatives Evaluation Criteria Evaluation Criteria Strategy 4 Builds brand awareness It would be the best solution to create brand image in global market 5 Aligns with vision This strategy is complies the vision, as the vision of the company is to be the world’s best vehicles by building large market share, revenue, earnings and by developing the quality of the vehicles 5 Exploits core competency GM has already experienced success for outstanding offerings where new pricing strategy would increase its profits 4 Competition Strategy 4 would be the best solution to compete with Toyota, Honda and other foreign competitors 5 Differentiates and helps to create un ique experience The behavior of the customer would be changed due to the new strategy 5 Creating loyal customer base It would be possible for the company to build loyal customer base like competitors 5 Financial risk There is almost no financial risk to implement this strategy 5 Short and long term Growth rate Short and long-term growth of the company would be depending on the customer behavior and strong customer base. However, it can assume that this strategy will expand in near future rapidly 5 Think customer first This strategy first think customer 5 Degree of Flexibility It would be possible to focus on other countries 5 Total / 50 49 Recommendation This report recommended that Alternative strategy 4 is the best solution considering the evaluation criteria of decision-making process and this strategy would help the company to create brand image in global market including developing countries. Alternative strategy 4 only considers the new product development with exceptional features, but the company would never be able to capture large market share if the customers purchase the low price products of competitors. As a result, combination of pricing strategy with development of product line would be the most successful strategy to regain its market position in the US market and establish the company as market leader in global market. Reference List Conklin, D. C. (2005) General Motors: Acting Strategically. Ontario: Richard Ivey School of Business. General Motors (2010) Annual Report 2010 of General Motors Company). [Online] Available from: Reuters (2011) General Motors Co (GM.N). [Online] Available from: WSJ. (2011) Sales and Share of Total Market by Manufacturer. [Online] Available from: Yahoo Finance (2011) Direct Competitor Comparison of General Motors Company (GM). [Online] Available from: h ttp:// Yahoo Finance (2011) General Motors Company (GM). [Online] Available from:;range=2y;indicator=volume;charttype=line;crosshair=on;ohlcvalues=0;logscale=on;source=undefined Footnotes North American Free Tread Agreement The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

Sunday, March 1, 2020

The Story of Nat Turners Rebellion

The Story of Nat Turners Rebellion Nat Turner’s Rebellion was an intensely violent episode which broke out in August 1831 when slaves in southeastern Virginia rose up against white residents of the area. During a two-day rampage, more than 50 whites were killed, mostly by being stabbed or hacked to death. The leader of the slave uprising, Nat Turner, was an unusually charismatic character. Though born a slave, he had learned to read. And he was reputed to possess knowledge of scientific subjects. He was also said to experience religious visions, and would preach religion to his fellow slaves. While Nat Turner was able to draw followers to his cause, and organize them to commit murder, his ultimate purpose remains elusive. It was widely assumed that Turner and his followers, numbering about 60 slaves from local farms, intended to flee into a swampy area and essentially live outside society. Yet they didnt seem to make any serious effort to leave the area.   It is possible Turner believed he could invade the local county seat, seize weapons, and make a stand. But the odds of surviving a counterattack from armed citizens, local militia, and even federal troops, would have been remote. Many of the participants in the rebellion, including Turner, were captured and hanged. The bloody uprising against the established order failed. Yet Nat Turner’s Rebellion lived on in popular memory. The slave insurrection in Virginia in 1831 left a long and bitter legacy. The violence unleashed was so shocking that severe measures were put in place to make it more difficult for slaves to learn to read and to travel beyond their homes. And the slave uprising led by Turner would influence attitudes about slavery for decades. Anti-slavery activists, including William Lloyd Garrison and others in the abolitionist movement, saw the actions of Turner and his band as a heroic effort to break the chains of slavery. Pro-slavery Americans, startled and deeply alarmed by the sudden outbreak of violence, began to accuse the small but vocal abolitionist movement of actively motivating slaves to revolt. For years, any action taken by the abolitionist movement, such as the pamphlet campaign of 1835, would be interpreted as an attempt to inspire those in bondage to follow the example of Nat Turner. Life of Nat Turner Nat Turner was born a slave on October 2, 1800, in Southampton County, in southeastern Virginia. As a child he exhibited unusual intelligence, quickly learning to read. He later claimed he could not recall learning to read; he just set about to do it and essentially acquired reading skills spontaneously. Growing up, Turner became obsessed with reading the Bible, and became a self-taught preacher in a slave community. He also claimed to experience religious visions. As a young man, Turner escaped from an overseer and fled into the woods. He remained at large for a month, but then voluntarily returned. He related the experience in his confession, which was published following his execution: About this time I was placed under an overseer, from whom I  ran away - and after remaining in the woods thirty days, I returned, to the astonishment of the negroes on the plantation, who thought I had made my escape to some other part of the country, as my father had done before.But the reason of my return was, that the Spirit appeared to me and said I had my wishes directed to the things of this world, and not to the kingdom of Heaven, and that I should return to the service of my earthly master - For he who knoweth his Masters will,  and doeth it not, shall be beaten with many stripes, and thus, have I chastened you. And the negroes found fault, and  murmured against me, saying that if they had my sense they would not serve any master in the world.And about this time I had a vision - and I saw white spirits and black spirits engaged in battle, and the sun was darkened - the thunder rolled in the Heavens, and blood flowed in streams - and I heard a voice saying, Such is y our luck, such you are called to see, and let it come rough or smooth, you must surely bear it.I now withdrew myself as much as my situation would permit, from the intercourse of my fellow servants, for the avowed purpose of serving the Spirit more fullyand it appeared to me, and reminded me of the things it had already shown me, and that it would then reveal to me the knowledge of the elements, the revolution of the planets, the operation of tides, and changes of the seasons.After this revelation in the year 1825, and the knowledge of the elements being made known to me, I sought more than ever to obtain true holiness before the great day of judgment should appear, and then I began to receive the true knowledge of faith. Turner also related that he began to receive other visions. One day, working in the fields, he saw drops of blood on ears of corn. Another day he claimed to have seem images of men, written in blood, on leaves of trees. He interpreted the signs to mean a great day of judgment was at hand. In early 1831 a solar eclipse was interpreted by Turner as a sign that he should act. With his experience of  preaching to other slaves, and he was able to organize a small band to follow him.   The Rebellion In Virginia On a Sunday afternoon, August 21, 1831, a group of four slaves gathered in the woods for a barbecue. As they cooked a pig, Turner joined them, and the group apparently formulated the final plan to attack nearby white landowners that night. In the early morning hours of August 22, 1831, the group attacked the family of the man who owned Turner. By stealthily entering the house, Turner and his men surprised the family in their beds, killing them by slashing them to death with knives and axes. After leaving the familys house, Turners accomplices realized they had left a baby sleeping in a crib. They returned to the house and killed the infant. The brutality and efficiency of the killings would be repeated throughout the day. And as more slaves joined Turner and the original band, the violence quickly escalated. In various small groups, slaves armed with knives and axes would ride up to a house, surprising the residents, and quickly murder them. Within about 48 hours more than 50 white residents of Southampton County were murdered. Word of the outrages spread quickly. At least one local farmer armed his slaves, and they helped fight off a band of Turners disciples. And at least one poor white family, who owned no slaves, were spared by Turner, who told his men to ride past their house and leave them alone. As the groups of rebels struck farmsteads they tended to collect more weapons. Within a day the improvised slave army had obtained firearms and gunpowder. It has been assumed that Turner and his followers may  have intended to march on the county seat of Jerusalem, Virginia, and seize weapons stored there. But a group of armed white citizens managed to find and attack a group of Turners followers before that could happen. A number of rebellious slaves were killed and wounded in that attack, and the rest scattered into the countryside. Nat Turner managed to escape and evade detection for a month. But he was eventually chased down and surrendered. He was imprisoned, put on trial, and hanged. Impact of Nat Turners Rebellion The insurrection in Virginia was reported in a Virginia newspaper, the Richmond Enquirer, on August 26, 1831. The initial reports said local families had been killed, and considerable military force might be required to subdue the disturbers. The article in the Richmond Enquirer mentioned that militia companies were riding to Southampton County, delivering supplies of arms and ammunition. The newspaper, in the same week as the rebellion had occurred, was calling out for vengeance: But that these wretches will rue the day on which they broke loose upon the neighboring population is most certain. A terrible retribution will fall upon their heads. Dearly will they pay for their madness and misdeeds. In the following weeks, newspapers along the East Coast carried news of what was generally termed an insurrection. Even in an era before the penny press and the telegraph, when news still traveled by letter on ship or horseback, accounts from Virginia were published widely. After Turner was captured and jailed, he provided a confession in a series of interviews. A book of his confession was published, and it remains the primary account of his life and deeds during the uprising. As fascinating as Nat Turners confession is, it should probably be considered with some skepticism. It was published, of course, by a white man who was not sympathetic to Turner or to the cause of the enslaved. So its presentation of Turner as perhaps delusional may have been an effort to portray his cause as utterly misguided. Legacy of Nat Turner The abolitionist movement often invoked Nat Turner as a heroic figure who rose up to fight against oppression. Harriet Beecher Stowe, the author of Uncle Toms Cabin, included a portion of Turners confession in the appendix of one of her novels. In 1861, the abolitionist author Thomas Wentworth Higginson, wrote an account of Nat Turners Rebellion for the Atlantic Monthly. His account placed the story in historical context just as the Civil War was beginning. Higginson was not merely an author, but had been an associate of John Brown, to the extent that he was identified as one of the Secret Six who helped finance Browns 1859 raid on a federal armory. John Browns ultimate goal when he launched his raid on Harpers Ferry was to inspire a slave rebellion and succeed where Nat Turners Rebellion, and an earlier slave rebellion planned by Denmark Vesey, had failed.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words - 3

Research Paper Example The most recent statistics related to cyber bullying have pointed to a very worrying social trend that is associated with the social media usage. According to the 2014 cyber bullying statistics, 70% of the youths globally are being bullied through social media, while 37% of them are experiencing highly frequent bullying (, n.p.). Additionally, according to a recent report released by the joint task force of the Department of Education and Skills (DES) and the National Office for Suicide Prevention (NOSP), the victims of social media bullying are increasingly showing signs of poor peer relationships, increased anxiety, poor academic performance, psychological instabilities, self-harm tendencies and suicidal thoughts (Gleeson, 5). Nevertheless, it is not only the victims who are negatively affected, since the cyber bullies are increasingly showing behavioral anomalies. The statistics on the effects of social media bullying are even running from alarming to totally terrifying. For example, the recent data on the implications of social media bullying, such as the one reported by the Megan Meier Foundation, indicated that 29% of the social media bullying victims, and 38% of the frequently cyber-bullied victims reported either suicidal thoughts or suicidal attempts (Megan Meier Foundation, n.p.). The stroke that breaks the camel’s back is the evidence that suicide ranks as the third leading cause of death for young people between the age of 15-24 years (Megan Meier Foundation, n.p.). It is when such realities start to dawn on the society that the society finally realizes that a tool that was first meant to enhance social welfare, can turn into a destructive social weapon, which eats the society from within , in a manner that cannot be easily mitigated. At this point it becomes necessary to pause and ask; why is social media bullying such and pandemic for the modern society? The answer to this question is that statistics